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Norfolk Island : The World Factbook

Original from The World Factbook at


Background: :: Two British attempts at establishing the island as a penal colony (1788-1814 and 1825-55) were ultimately abandoned. In 1856, the island was resettled by Pitcairn Islanders, descendants of the Bounty mutineers and their Tahitian companions. ::


Location: :: Oceania, island in the South Pacific Ocean, east of Australia
Geographic coordinates: :: 29 02 S, 167 57 E
Map references: :: Oceania
Area: :: total: 36 sq km country comparison to the world: 235 land: 36 sq km water: 0 sq km
Area - comparative: :: about 0.2 times the size of Washington, DC
Land boundaries: :: 0 km
Coastline: :: 32 km
Maritime claims: :: territorial sea: 12 nm exclusive fishing zone: 200 nm
Climate: :: subtropical; mild, little seasonal temperature variation
Terrain: :: volcanic formation with mostly rolling plains
Elevation extremes: :: lowest point: Pacific Ocean 0 m highest point: Mount Bates 319 m
Natural resources: :: fish
Land use: :: arable land: 0% permanent crops: 0% other: 100% (2011)
Irrigated land: :: NA
Natural hazards: :: typhoons (especially May to July)
Environment - current issues: :: NA
Geography - note: :: most of the 32 km coastline consists of almost inaccessible cliffs, but the land slopes down to the sea in one small southern area on Sydney Bay, where the capital of Kingston is situated ::

People and Society

Nationality: :: noun: Norfolk Islander(s) adjective: Norfolk Islander(s)
Ethnic groups: :: descendants of the Bounty mutineers, Australian, New Zealander, Polynesian
Languages: :: English (official), Norfolk (a mixture of 18th century English and ancient Tahitian)
Religions: :: Protestant 45.6% (Anglican 31.8%, Uniting Church in Australia 10.6%, Seventh-Day Adventist 3.2%), Roman Catholic 11.5%, other Christian 5.6%, none 19.9%, unspecified 16.6% (2006 census)
Population: :: 2,196 (July 2013 est.) country comparison to the world: 232
Age structure: :: 0-14 years: 20.2% 15-64 years: 63.9% 65 years and over: 15.9% (2013 est.)
Population growth rate: :: 0.01% (2013 est.) country comparison to the world: 193
Sex ratio: :: NA
Infant mortality rate: :: total: NA male: NA female: NA
Life expectancy at birth: :: total population: NA male: NA female: NA
Total fertility rate: :: NA
HIV/AIDS - adult prevalence rate: :: NA
HIV/AIDS - people living with HIV/AIDS: :: NA
HIV/AIDS - deaths: :: NA
Education expenditures: :: NA
Literacy: :: NA ::


Country name: :: conventional long form: Territory of Norfolk Island conventional short form: Norfolk Island
Dependency status: :: self-governing territory of Australia; administered from Canberra by the Department of Regional Australia, Local Government, Arts and Sport
Government type: :: NA
Capital: :: name: Kingston geographic coordinates: 29 03 S, 167 58 E time difference: UTC+11.5 (16.5 hours ahead of Washington, DC during Standard Time)
Administrative divisions: :: none (territory of Australia)
Independence: :: none (territory of Australia)
National holiday: :: Bounty Day (commemorates the arrival of Pitcairn Islanders), 8 June (1856)
Constitution: :: Norfolk Island Act 1979; amended 2005
Legal system: :: English common law and the laws of Australia
Suffrage: :: 18 years of age; universal
Executive branch: :: chief of state: Queen ELIZABETH II (since 6 February 1952); represented by the Australian governor general head of government: Administrator Neil POPE (since 1 April 2012) cabinet: Executive Council made up of 4 of the 9 members of the Legislative Assembly; the council devises government policy and acts as an advisor to the administrator (For more information visit the World Leaders website ) elections: the monarchy is hereditary; governor general appointed by the monarch; administrator appointed by the governor general of Australia for a two year term and represents the monarch and Australia
Legislative branch: :: unicameral Legislative Assembly (9 seats; members elected by electors who have nine equal votes each but only four votes can be given to any one candidate; members to serve three-year terms) elections: last held on 13 March 2013 (next to be held in 2016) election results: seats - independents 8; Norfolk Liberals 1
Judicial branch: :: highest court(s): Supreme Court of Norfolk Island (consists of the chief justice and NA justices) note - appeals beyond the Supreme Court of Norfolk Island are heard by the Federal Court of Australia judge selection and term of office: justices appointed by the governor general of Australia from among justices of the Federal Court of Australia; justices serve until mandatory retirement at age 70 subordinate courts: Petty Court of Sessions; specialized courts including a Coroner's Court and the Employment Tribunal
Political parties and leaders: :: Norfolk Island Labor Party [Mike KELLY] Norfolk Liberals [John BROWN]
Political pressure groups and leaders: :: none
International organization participation: :: UPU
Diplomatic representation in the US: :: none (territory of Australia)
Diplomatic representation from the US: :: none (territory of Australia)
Flag description: :: three vertical bands of green (hoist side), white, and green with a large green Norfolk Island pine tree centered in the slightly wider white band; green stands for the rich vegetation on the island, and the pine tree - endemic to the island - is a symbol of Norfolk Island note: somewhat reminiscent of the flag of Canada with its use of only two colors and depiction of a prominent local floral symbol in the central white band
National symbol(s): :: Norfolk Island pine
National anthem: :: name: "Come Ye Blessed" lyrics/music: New Testament/John Prindle SCOTT note: the local anthem, whose lyrics consist of the words from Matthew 25:34-36, 40, is also known as "The Pitcairn Anthem;" as a territory of Australia, "God Save the Queen" is official (see Australia), however, the island does not recognize "Advance Australia Fair" ::


Economy - overview: :: Norfolk Island is suffering from a severe economic downturn. Tourism, the primary economic activity, is the main driver of economic growth. The agricultural sector has become self sufficient in the production of beef, poultry, and eggs.
GDP (purchasing power parity): :: $NA
Agriculture - products: :: Norfolk Island pine seed, Kentia palm seed, cereals, vegetables, fruit; cattle, poultry
Industries: :: tourism, light industry, ready mixed concrete
Labor force: :: 978 (2006) country comparison to the world: 230
Labor force - by occupation: :: agriculture: 6% industry: 14% services: 80% (2006 est.)
Budget: :: revenues: $4.6 million expenditures: $4.8 million (FY99/00)
Fiscal year: :: 1 July - 30 June
Exports: :: $NA
Exports - commodities: :: postage stamps, seeds of the Norfolk Island pine and Kentia palm, small quantities of avocados
Imports: :: $NA
Imports - commodities: :: NA
Debt - external: :: $NA
Exchange rates: :: Australian dollars (AUD) per US dollar - 0.9658 (2012) 0.9695 (2011) 1.0902 (2010) 1.2822 (2009) 1.2059 (2008) ::


Telephone system: :: general assessment: adequate domestic: free local calls international: country code - 672; submarine cable links with Australia and New Zealand; satellite earth station - 1
Broadcast media: :: 1 local radio station; broadcasts of several Australian radio and TV stations available via satellite (2009)
Internet country code: :: .nf
Internet hosts: :: 128 (2012) country comparison to the world: 204 ::


Airports: :: 1 (2013) country comparison to the world: 228
Airports - with paved runways: :: total: 1 1,524 to 2,437 m: 1 (2013)
Roadways: :: total: 80 km country comparison to the world: 216 paved: 53 km unpaved: 27 km (2008)
Ports and terminals: :: Kingston ::


Military - note: :: defense is the responsibility of Australia ::

Transnational Issues

Disputes - international: :: none ::